The HPI refers to deprivation in three essential elements of human life already refl ected in the HDI – longevity, knowledge and decent standard of living. The first, deprivation, relates to survival – the vulnerability to death at a relatively early age. The second relates to knowledge – being excluded from the world of reading and communication. The third relates to a decent living standard in terms of overall economic provisioning. Source : UNDP, Human Development Report.